Food Hormone balance 134 (2012) 696вЂ“703
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Food Hormone balance
journal home page: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem
Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part II: Volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles in the juice
Mun Wai Cheong a, Danping Zhu a, Jingting Sng a, Shao Quan Liu a, Weibiao Zhou a, Philip Curran m, Bin Yu b, в‡‘
Food Scientific research and Technology Programme, Office of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543, Singapore Firmenich Asia Pte., Limited., 10 Tuas West Street, Singapore 638377, Singapore
a r t i c l at the
i in f o
Received 1 November 2011
Received in revised type 6 February 2012
Approved 22 Feb 2012
Available on the web 2 03 2012
Calamansi (Citrus microcarpa)
Organic acid solution
Phenolic acid solution
a w s big t r a c to
Calamansi drinks from 3 countries (Malaysia, the Korea and Vietnam) were characterized through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile aspects of manually squashed calamansi juices were removed using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatographyвЂ“mass spectrometry/п¬‚ame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile chemical substances were identiп¬Ѓed. The outcomes indicated the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components extracted from principal component analysis (PCA) represented fifth there’s 89. 65% in the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the list of non-volatile components, these 3 calamansi state of mind could be, at some level, differentiated in respect to fructose and blood sugar concentrations. Consequently, this analyze of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits. Г“ 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1 . Introduction
For many centuries, citrus fruit juice has become valued as one of the healthiest and many consumed beverages, not only because of high nutritional C content, but likewise its special aroma and taste (Rouseff, Perez-Cacho, & Jabalpurwala, 2009). Besides common citrus fruits (i. e., orange, citrus and lime), exotic citrus fruits such as Pontianak lemon (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) from Indonesia, Mosambi (Citrus sinensis var. mosambi) from India and Dalandan (Citrus reticulata) from your Philippines, have got attracted very much attention (Dharmawan, Kasapis, Curran, & Johnson, 2007; Fischer, Grab, & Schieberle, 2008). Calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) juice has the mix of a sweet mandarin-like aroma with a zesty taste of lime, a slightly peel-like note of fruit and a touch of acidic astringency. It is commonly used being a seasoning in food, and it is also often used as a п¬‚avouring or as a food additive to boost iron ingestion. Our materials search indicated that, as of yet, there include only been four reports on calamansi juice (Nisperos-Carriedo, Baldwin, Moshonas, & Shaw, 1992; Takeuchi, Ubukata, Hanafusa, Hayashi, & Hashimoto, 2006; Wang, Chuang, & Ku, 2007; Por mi parte & Lin, 2004). By an synthetic perspective, the measurement of volatiles in citrus juice still remains a challenge. For instance , to preserve the authentic fragrant proп¬Ѓle of citrus juice during extraction, it is в‡‘ Corresponding publisher.
E-mail treat: bin. [email protected]п¬Ѓrmenich. com (B. Yu).
0308-8146/$ - observe front subject Г“ 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All legal rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.139
virtually extremely hard to obtain a substantial aroma mixture recovery (Dunn, Philips, & van Bronswijk, 1997). This is certainly partly because of the complex matrix and a restricted amount of volatile ingredients present in lemon or lime juice. Additionally to various microbe and enzyme activities, appealing yet volatile aroma compounds are easily altered while some off-п¬‚avour compounds are also quickly formed during extraction (Perez-Cacho & Rouseff, 2008). In...
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