Cognitive Dissonance and Paradigms in Research

 Essay about Cognitive Cacophonie and Paradigms in Research

Cognitive cacophonie is a distress caused by possessing conflicting ideas simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce cacophonie. They do this by simply changing their attitudes, morals, and actions.[2] Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and question. The expression was termed by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When ever Prophecy Neglects, which chronicled the enthusiasts of a UFO cult while reality clashed with their eager beliefs.[3][4] It is one of the most influential and extensively examined theories in social psychology. A strongly related term, cognitive disequilibrium, was coined by Jean Piaget to refer towards the experience of a discrepancy among something new and something already noted or thought.

Experience may clash with expectations, because, for example , with buyer's embarrassment following the purchase of an expensive item. In a state of dissonance, people may possibly feel big surprise,[2] dread, remorse, anger, or perhaps embarrassment. Folks are biased to think of their choices as correct, despite virtually any contrary facts. This opinion gives dissonance theory its predictive power, shedding mild on or else puzzling reasonless and harmful behavior.

A classical example of this thought (and the origin of the phrase " sour grapes" ) is stated in the anagnorisis The Sibel and the Vineyard by Aesop (ca. 620–564 BCE). Inside the story, a fox views some high-hanging grapes and wishes to enjoy them. When the fox is not able to think of a way to reach all of them, he surmises that the grapes are probably not worth consuming, as they should not be ripe or perhaps that they are bitter. This case in point follows a pattern: a single desires a thing, finds it unachievable, and reduces one's cacophonie by criticizing it. Jon Elster calls this style " adaptive preference formation. Theory and research

Most of the research on cognitive cacophonie takes the shape of one of four major paradigms. Important research generated by theory continues to be concerned with the results of...

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